Chichester Portsmouth:hants & West Sussex-War Time Os Map 1930-1945-Poss Mod Use

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller chapelstile (4.143) 100%, Location: Redhill, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 163081857943 "A PERSPECTIVE ON BRITAIN: TRAVEL WITH AN ANTIQUE OR VINTAGE MAP" seller’s code: 040620183 Here is the Series Six (1920's-1940's) 1 inch survey No: 181 Title: CHICHESTER WEST SUSSEX AND EAST HAMPSHIRE Showing Portsmouth, Petersfield, Chichester, Selsey, Bognor Regis to Littlehampton, Petworth Survey revision and publication: 1930- 1945 West Sussex and the Hampshire border GENERAL: Here is a coastline in constant transition. It would appear that the South Downs represent an old coast line and after their formation (which ended 66 million years ago as deposited chalk and 50 million years ago as an orogeny) a flat littoral has built up on the south or seaward side. But this , with its promontories, has clearly been breaches to for Portsmouth Harbour, Langstone Harbour, Chichester Harbour and Pagham Harbour. The curiosity here must be why are all the waterways of Kent and East Sussex silting and the land extending, but the drift material of the Eocene forming this coast is eroding fracturing and being inundated? Why if West Sussex and Hampshire sinks, does East Sussex and Kent not apparently do so. I think this coast waxes and wanes. Old maps might show Pagham Harbour as large- as here in 1930-45, or small or non-existent. It is a periodic feature and perhaps the larger harbours also wax and wane though we do not see it. In Roman Saxon and Norse times there were major ports at Fishbourne and Bosham- which are now minor quays. Bosham was the major port of the country in the reign of Cnut (Canute) and here he is said to have ordered the sea to retreat. His daughter drowned here and is buried in the church. In the War, at the time of this map, Portsmouth was a major station for the Channel fleet and the dockyard is here redacted and shown as a blank white space. It is a curious form of censorship which actually makes the Navy base stand out better in the general; lithographic black of the city. Gosport also has redaction and one is that Haslar Naval Hospital has the word “Naval” dropped on this War series: which is also odd because under the Geneva Convention they should be protected from attack. I don’t think this coast was considered much threatened by invasion because of the Wall of the South Downs – through which there are no very usable breaches west of the Arun. So although the invasion was assumed to be coming: Eastbourne and Pevensey was considered the likely landing place. The idea was to channel this invasion force to the north west, via the Wey Gap where the bowl of land about Waveney would be a killing field. The idea was that with the Royal Navy commanding the Channel, logistical lines would have been severed and the Wehrmacht would be running short of fuel and ordnance in North west Surrey about 3 weeks after landing. All this depended on the RAF not loosing air cover for the Navy and the Battle of Britain was the attempt by the Luftwaffe to win that air superiority. It is alleged that, on the verge of loosing, the RAF switched to bombing Berlin and the resulting switch of tactics by the Luftwaffe- the Blitz- saved Fighter Command and so indefinitely postponed the invasion. It is an intriguing theory at least. Eastbourne was evacuated: I don’t think any of these towns were evacuated: though no doubt the whole of this littoral was a restricted zone . That leads to a second question: For whom was this redacted map printed? It is rare being on paper and not linen backed. It is also rare in being an edition D which I have not seen before. I think it might be a MOD GSGS printing and used by the Home Guard and other essential services in the last year of the War. I wonder when OS maps went on general sale again? Perhaps late 1945 or 1946 which is the date most often seen on this series 6. CHICHESTER The military history of this city is particularly associated with the Royal Military Police who are barracked here. The town is on a canal which reaches the tidal water at Birdham. It is on the South Coast Railway- probably served by the London Brighton and South Cost Railway pre 1923 or that company with the LSWR. In 1923 it became the Southern Railway and that is the company seen here. In 1948- three years after this map it became British railways. It will be seen that the level crossings are prominently marked with re St Andrew’s crosses: These are not seen on Series 5 or Series 7 maps: so they are not for the benefit of drivers. These mark key points on the railway used a direction indicators for aircraft. The pilots of the ATC used junctions between rail and road for the delivery of aircraft. When such usage stopped, the OS ceased using the symbol. At Chichester is the word Noviomagus- an alleged Roman name for the town. It was a Royal town in Pre Roman times under the Regni or Artrobates: who were in some confederation. It was also a Royal; town in the time of the South Saxon Kingdom and Cissa son of Aelli gives his name to it: Ciccecaester. The Roman name means New Field or New Market. It is interesting that Fishbourne Palace just south west of the city was unknown when this map was published. It has been largely established that this was the home of a British Client ruler of the Regni. It seems to me that Noviomagus Regnesiorum cannot have been their main capital. The main Roman road to Chichester from London : Stane Street is well marked but unused in some sections: such as from Watersfield to Seabeach. The road north towards Guildford is almost lost on this map with only small remnants seen on Levant Downs by the Flint Mines. The Road to Porchester is easier to Trace. It is interesting that the railway line to Chichester running south from Midhurst is already marked as closed here in 1945_ so that cannot have been anything to do with the Beeching cuts. PORTSMOUTH 1945 This port was a major base for Destroyer Flotillas. There is very interesting marking on blocks of streets in the west of the city, by the dock yards. It would appear that bombed out streets are marked as such: and if so, this sheet is perhaps unique in the OS Series. Elsewhere (except on the 25” and 50” planners’ Maps) the War and its damage passed by unnoticed by the Ordnance Survey. The Survey date here is 1930 (too early for bomb damage) and the Survey dates for Series 7 maps were 1950-51-52 (too late for bomb damage). If my reading of this map is correct, then the port west of a line from Southsea Castle to Landport and some blocks east of there- were devastated. Portsmouth is one town on Portsea Island. The others are Hilsea, Milton, Fratton and Southsea. Ferries are marked to Gosport but no services are marked to the Isle of Wight, which was a restricted Zone and probably only entered and left with travel documents. SUBTERFUGE It is said that the Ordnance Survey use false mapping for various purposes. One reason is to protect copyright, for an illegal copyist will prove their gilt by copying a false piece of cartography. In the war the OS must have doctored maps because when an airfield was redacted, a blank space would have been a give away: so some camouflage mapping would have been necessary. Here is an interesting phenomenon: consider the airfield marked at Tangmere. It has a road and Oar Farm on it, but it is marked “Airfield” That was an airfield. But why was it marked when others are redacted. Note the mapping at Ford on the coast line: Here was a very well known RNAS airfield but it is completely unmarked. It lay on the land just north of the village, west of the Arundel Road and near Wickes Farm. But why is Ford hidden and Tangmere marked? It might have been that in 1945, Ford was operational and Tangmere was not: but that is just a guess. PETWORTH, UP PARK, AND ARUNDEL It is possible that both these great estates saw War service. Petworth was the homer of the Lords Egremont and is famous for the paintings of Turner who was resident here for a time. He did nice sunsets of the park but couldn’t paint people: it is good to know that such people had their limitations. Grinling Gibbons also worked here. Up Park is one of those estates which the National Trust managed to burn down: in this case they took the decision to recreate it and went to great expense to open factories and search out lost crafts to do so – using the charred remnants as models. They have just burnt down Clandon in Surrey and it will be interesting to see if they use this same philosophy or adopt a more utilitarian approach: my money is on the latter. Up Park is more or less central to the map and Petworth is on more or less the same latitude mut much further west. The philosophy of painstaking recreation from small remnants was pioneered by the Soviets with the rebuilding of the Baltic Palaces destroyed by the Germans. Arundel Park is on the eastern side of the map and here is a castle and home of the Dukes of Norfolk. They are hereditary Earls Marshall of England, and old Catholic nobility. Here is a curious church with a glass partition in the middle: It is Church of England at one end and Roman Catholic at the other: it might be the only one. The Castle is largely modern (like Windsor): a Victorian and early 20th century romance on an older base. One of the Dukes kept owls in a tower there, and I think this must have been seized upon by Mervyn Peake because, in his Gormengast trilogy, the mad Lord Groan kept owls in a tower and eventually that ate him. I don’t think any of the Dukes of Norfolk were eaten by owls. MAP STATS: TITLE: CHICHESTER 181 SERIES 6 DATES: 1930-45 PUBLISHER: Ordnance Survey of England and Wales EDITION: 1 inch Series 6 PRINTER: Ordnance Survey, Chessington PRINTING CODE: D PRINTING PROCESS: Helio Zincograph SCALE: 1 inch to the mile GRID: 1 and 10 km grid from the 00 datum of South East Cornwall OVERALL DIMENSIONS: Roughly 27 inches by 32 inches. COVER DIMENSIONS: 8 ½ inches by 5 inches COVER DETAIL: hinged : card, buff, red with black lettering cartouche map and Royal Arms – back cover shows index map of the series COVER CONDITION: edge nicks and some wear MAP PAPER OR LINEN BACKED: PAPER- RARE , AS RARE EDITION NUMBER PROBABLY M.O.D.? FOLD WEAR: minimal very good for an old paper map which usually have fallen to bits at this age PIN HOLES AT FOLD JUNCTIONS: minor VERSO: Plain paper FOXING: no REINFORCING: no SURFACE MARKING: minimal FOLDED INTO: 24 sections ANNOTATION: not seen INTEREST: considerable: Old railways of West Sussex, perhaps War Use- unusual code D map, Unusual Paper map unlike most civilian sheets of this series. Portsmouth perhaps uniquely shows bomb damage. Chichester before Fishbourne Palace was discovered. Up Park before it was burnt down. Petworth- perhaps a military hospital then? Arundel- a Mervyn Peake inspiration? GENERAL CONDITION: Good , COVER HAS FIELD WEAR THE NORTH WEST CORNER OF THIS MAP IS AT: Near Ropley THE NORTH EAST CORNER OF THIS MAP IS AT: Near Plaistow (the Sussex village) THE SOUTH EAST CORNER OF THIS MAP IS AT: Sea off Littlehampton THE SOUTH WEST OF THIS MAP IS AT: Isle of Wight just clips the map at Nettlestone Point THE CENTRE OF THIS MAP IS AT: Chilgrove just east of Up Park THE SOUTH WEST CORNER OF THIS MAP IS: 90 km NORTH OF NG 00 DATUM AND: 463 km EAST OF NG 00 DATUM (which is off South West Cornwall) ….. GENERAL NOTES ON SERIES 6 MAPS The Sixth Edition was essentially the War Survey, from a revised survey prior to the War and published in the war or the first year of the Peace- earlier than any Post War survey would have been possible. The standard dates were 1930 revision -1946 edition The earliest and latest dates were about 1928 revision- 1948 publication. Some were published in the War : 1940+. These must have been restricted In this series,RAF and RNAS airfield from the 2nd World War were redacted. PROJECTION Series 6 maps used an adapted Mercator projection- probably the Transverse model or Secant model which defined two true latitudes roughly at the tropics rather than the equatorial base latitude of the standard Mercator. This had the effect of minimising the distortion which- at this latitude, would have been significant on a Standard Mercator Projection RAILWAYS This was the last survey to show the full Pre-British Railways' network, with the Old Company named written by the lines. The country was covered by the Southern Railway, London & North Eastern Railway, Great Western Railway, and London Midland and Scottish Railways. Some smaller railways remained, notably “Lancashire and Cheshire Lines”, “Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway”, “Norfolk and Suffolk Joint Committee Railway”. Here was the last survey to definitely show all the branch railways of the district open, prior to the mass closures of the 1950's- 1960's. Series 6 maps named roads with their MOT numbers for the first time on 1 inch maps. This was the last survey to always show Britain before any motorways were built. CARTOGRAPHY Series 6 maps tended to be about 27 inches by 31 inches. Covers were 8 ¼ inches by 5 inches. Some early ones are shorter and fold the bottom margin in-to accommodate the same sized sheet. The maps were lithographed sometimes from engraved masters. It is said that South of Birmingham the masters were already Lithographic, but north of that latitude the masters were still electrotyped There were 190 maps in the Series, numbered north to south. No 1 was Shetland; No 190 was Truro. In Series 6 Scottish Maps were still separate from English and Welsh and has different covers- Both were called “1 Inch New Popular Edition” GRIDS AND DATUM Series 6 introduced the National Grid of 1 and 10 kilometre square- Point “00” on the grid was located off South West of Cornwall. The scale is expressed as 1 inch or 1:63,360 The datum for measurements of altitude is not stated except as “Mean Sea Level” but since 1915 this was LWMMT at the Tidal Observatory, Newlyn, Cornwall. The re-levelling to the new datum at Newlyn LWMMT from the old datum at Liverpool LWMMT was slow, often c 1932 so it is possible this series might use the old Liverpool datum. I have noticed that in some places (Mid Kent for example) the re-levelling to Newlyn added about 4 ft to the old figures. In other places this seems not to be the case and in a few- the old Liverpool datum heights are greater- these discrepancies are unexplained. There is an interesting not on some OS series 6 maps stating that the the 100 ft contours are surveyed- so presumably the 50 ft interim contours are interpolated or guessed. Series 6 did not revise using Aerial Photography, but the War heralded this form of cartography for Series 7. COVERS Original Series 6 covers were vermilion and off-white with red and black lettering, the Royal Arms marked GR, the edition number was at top right and on the front cover was a cartouche map. The cover aesthetic was almost Edwardian and quite unlike that of Series 7 maps. OS did not use gloss covers then. All editions cited revision and publication dates on the cover. The covers of Series 6 maps hinged in the English and Welsh series; Scottish maps had floating covers. RAILWAYS The Railways of Series 6 maps are the Company Railways following the amalgamations of the 1920's. These created the G.W.R., L.& N.E.R., L.M. & S.R. And the Southern Railway. Some smaller systems survived- notable Cheshire Lines near Merseyside, the Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway in East Anglia and the Norfolk and Suffolk Joint Committee Railway in those counties. HYDROGRAPHY Series Six maps do not show Admiralty soundings , as earlier terrestrial Ordnance 1” maps did. But the shallows and tidal flats are shown in great detail in a grey stipple- and the major tidal flats are named. The marine contours of a Series 6 map are 5 and 10 fathoms. Note that inland waters are measured in feet not fathoms (if measured at all). Bathymetric surveys can be quite old- 1870's-1900's and are not often repeated. Some inland waters are cited with a height above sea level at the water surface. I assume fathoms are measured from the same datum as land altitude: LWMMT Liverpool or Newlyn, but that is a guess. A fathom is 6 ft so the two contours on a Series 6 OS map equate to 30 ft and 60 ft sea depth. A shallow water which can be measured by plumb line is “sounding”. “Beyond Sounding” is deeper than 100 fathoms. Interestingly, burial at sea has to be at least 6 fathoms: called “Deep Six”. Technically a fathom is 1/1000 of an Imperial Nautical or Sea Mile, which is a little more than 6 ft. TOWNS 1” OS maps do not show bomb or war damage- there was no new survey work between the Pre war revision date and the publication date. There might be a couple of exceptions to the above rule, one might be Portsmouth. One has to fine 25” or 50” surveys- used by the Land Registry and Planners before the word “ruin” is seen on buildings, plots and parcels of land. Notice how the blocks of buildings are now represented with an opaque black blocking- This is the first full lithographic series – Previous editions of the 1” survey used hatching on urban areas, as is necessary with electrotype. The aesthetic result is that this Series 6 seems bolder, darker and broader lined. The electrotypes were light, high key and thin lined. This use of black for urban areas was short lived and somewhat problematic. By the 1950's it had been replaced with lithographic grey in which individual buildings such as town halls and churches could again be differentiated, in black, from the general urban shading. ................ The First OS Maps: The first Trigonometrical Survey was in 1791; beginning, near modern Heathrow Airport, on Hounslow Heath- so Surrey, Berkshire and Middlesex may well have been some of the earliest surveyed regions. In 1784 General William Roy measures out that first baseline of what would become the Ordnance Survey. It ran across Hounslow Heath, passing through Feltham. General Roy is commemorated locally in the name of a public house. The Ministry of Defence Geographic Centre still has a base in Feltham, used as a government mapping office. Maps were drawn then engraved for publication. The early presses were in the Tower of London. The first plates were engraved copper - cold cut with a burin. A burin being the engraver's cutting tool. Electrotypes were introduced in about 1850, as the copper plates began to wear out. Colonel Mudge was the first Director of the Ordnance Survey. Benjamin Baker was the first printmaker. Mudge was charged with map making for military purposes and Kent was the county of most concern; it was later, under Colby his successor, that the idea of rolling the Survey out from Kent northwards to cover the whole country came about. In 1863 the sale of the maps was made more commercial; James Gardner managed the operation from 163 Regent Street London. The printer at that time was Mr Ramshaw. Railways first appeared in 1842, so it is possible to find maps or copies of them with railways before electrotyping- but generally the two phenomena came in together. Dr Harley noted that “No copy of a pre-electrotype maps with railways has actually been located” - they are a kind of Holy Grail of O.S. mapping. From 1882 onwards revision became more frequent as new towns, railways and features burgeoned. The First Series Ordnance Survey was finished in 1873 and the last map of the series was that of the Isle of Man. The maps were not then intended for popular use and one sheet cost the equivalent of two day's average wages. The print runs of the 1st series were modest: never more than 1,000. It was this that gave an opening for Bartholomew to popularise the Survey with 1/2 inch Reduced Ordnance Surveys. They were forced to change their title to "Half in Reduced Survey" in 1911 when the Copyright Act was reinforced. On electrotypes in the period 1852+ the original engraver and director were still cited usually Lieut. Col. Mudge or Colby of the Royal Engineers and Mr Benjamin Baker. Sometimes a “writer” is named at top right. They generally state “At the Ordnance Survey Office in the Tower”. The numbering of the Sheets is always in Roman Numerals. Although the history books say this electrotyping was 1852+ all those I have personally touched have been 1872-73. Often several plates were tipped together forming quite huge linen backed sheets often about 26 inches by 50 inches- nearly always seen dissected and mounted in sections by London bespoke map preparers. The old Series 1 was monochrome but bespoke preparations often have watercolour wash as ordered. To give some notion of timing: the Series 1 map of Sussex is dated 1813 and that of Hereford is dated 1832. The series was rolled out from the South East as stated. RAILWAYS: Ist Series OS maps showed railways on the revised electrotyped plates introduced from the 1850s onwards. Railway Companies are un named from Serioes 7 onwards- that is: from the 1950s; before that date, railway companies were named by their lines – LMSR, LNER, GWR, Southern Railway etc.. After that date- the network became British Railways and no name was necessary. Pre and Post World War 2 maps give the regional railway companies, and name individual lines. Railway closures can, be old- several closed prior to the 2nd World War, a few earlier in the century. The manner for mapping closed and closing railways seems to have be: 1. Open; 2. Open but not public carriage; 3.Track marked stations in White; 4. Track bed marked in dashed line, cuttings shown, stations omitted; 5. Cuttings only as geographical features. 5. Much later, Pathfinder 2 1/2” maps show “track of old railway” as a green-way when it had become a leisure feature of the landscape. Closed stations are marked white, open stations are red. A closed series of stations does not prove a closed line which might be open for freight traffic only, or passenger traffic which now by-passes these old halts. War time maps seem sometimes to show stations closed for the duration which were re-opened after the War. CANALS Disused canals are similarly marked as disused, dry canal beds, and later just remnant bridges and surviving reaches. Unlike railways, the canal network has seen its closures being slowly reversed- a recent example is the Wey and Aran Navigation. GENERAL Civilian OS tends to use red for major roads, where as Military maps tended to use ochre- a major aesthetic difference. Interestingly, even on earlier maps, where all references are in miles, the grid is not Imperial but Metric. The Kilometre square seems to be much earlier in OS surveying than in popular use. Indeed there is no popular use of the Kilometre as an English land measure- but it is probably that the survey never used anything else in the 20th century. For example on a 1959 sheet one finds a kilometre measure, a mile measure, a kilometre grid but all references of distance where routes leave the map edge are in miles. The trend towards citing metric distance was reversed in the later Pathfinder series, it was part of a general socio-political change in which enthusiasm for ever closer European standardisation ebbed and the impetus to change popular usage was halted . There seems to have been a major aesthetic change in the 1960 Survey when the detail on the maps was simplified and drawn in a bolder manner. Prior to that, civilian OS and military OS were generally similar, though the gridding methods were different. The Civilian Map Grid was Black not Purple or Blue. The Military field sheet-map was almost always smaller than the Civilian one, and used non-standard colours and paper- because many printers were coopted for the War time work. REDACTION It has been alleged that OS add deliberate errors to maps to guard against copyright infringement- and it is fun to try to spot these- if they exist. War time maps exclude sites of military significance, Airbases were usually redacted but Army camps were generally not. Naval Ports were left blank and white. One local 1 inch war sheets, churches were unmarked as were other important buildings which might have been useful to an enemy for navigation. Perhaps barracks and camps were unamended because they dated from the Pre war period and would have been readily available to an enemy from older maps. Airfield were a different matter. THE FULL RANGE OF SCALES USED The following were listed in a 1908 O.S. cover as being the published maps of the time: “Town maps on a scale of ten feet or five feet to a mile; General Cadastral Map on a scale of 1/12500 or 50 inches to the miles; 1/2500 or 25 inches to the mile; General map on a scale of 6 inches to the mile; General map on the scale of one mile to an inch; General map on the scale of two miles to an Inch; General map on the scale of four miles to an inch; General Map of the United Kingdom 1/1000000 or 16 miles to an inch; The 10ft, 5 ft and 6 inch maps are black only; A full sheet is 36” X 24”, a ¼ sheet is 18” x 12”; The 1, 4, & 10 mile maps are published in black also; Contours are on 1 and 2 mile maps; Special maps of certain districts are published; All small scale maps can be had, mounted on linen, unmounted, flat, folded in covers, or cut into sections and mounted on linen; Geographical maps are 6inch to the mile or 1 mile to an inch or 4 miles to an inch.” ONE INCH MAPS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY: SERIES 3 - one inch The 1 inch Contoured Road maps had a pictorial cover, often on a brick red ground with black and fawn designs with the borders. The artist most seen was Ellis Martin and he worked in either pen and ink or woodblock on scenes of travellers by car or cycle. He signs EM at the bottom corner of the early 1920s design, and his full name on the 1930s version. The Full Survey dates for these maps up until 1930s was often surprisingly early : 1870s +. The format was 7” by 4 1/2” folded and the maps were often dissected, though OS used the term “mounted in sections”. Such were the economics of the time that a price could be printed on the map cover. Integral pricing lasted until Series 7, by which time appliqué labels to alter printed prices were common. A contoured road map of 1919 in dissected form was 3/6d. Its covers were in concertina form. The grid was 2” and numbered west to east and lettered south to north. The numbers and letters named the squares of the grid not the lines of it. Each grid block was of 4 square miles. Road were unnamed and railways showed their company names. The ½ inch series used an olive green cover instead of Brick Red. Ellis Martin illustrated these too- His most famous 1” design showed a tweed-clad cyclist studying his map with a pipe in his mouth; his 1/2” touring map design was of an open topped Rolls Royce like car with 3 passengers and a driver. A map found from this series had the following interesting characteristics: Intaglio blue printing for the hydrography, intaglio brown printing for the uplands, intaglio Black line printing for the roads and towns and names, red contours like a Belgian Institute Cartographique Militaire map, which it resembled in several characteristics. It had litho printed green for woods and litho printed orange for roads. Windmills, workhouses and smithies were marked throughout; thus there was an supposition that horse drawn carriages would be the normal form of conveyance. Hydrography at sea had contours marked in feet not fathoms and a very fine coastal hydrographic shading used parallel blue engraved lines which converged towards the coast line, to shade the coastal waters darker. The railways named older pre regional companies – LB&SCR in this case. It was linen backed and the sheet was about 30 inches by 20 inches between floating white linen covered boards- a most attractive but rarely seen series. (Map described was No. 137- Brighton Lewes Eastbourne). EDWARDIAN “WITH LAYERS” TOPOGRAPHIC 1/2 INCH MAPS This series is rare and experimental. It was an early form of lithgographic mapping- but some aspects suggest mixed media. The base map, with the line work and printing is fine, precise-and may not be lithographic; other thicker blacks appear on the map. There may be an electrotype engraved base and another block toned black plate. The toning on the landscape: which the OS called “With Layers” is “topographic shading” or what Bartholomew called it “orographic”,; it has a matrix: a letterpress characteristic. The sea has the appearance of having been masked out and spayed on- it is a lithographic process. I do not believe this process lasted any period of time and the relief shaded tourist maps of later years- of which this must be a kind of prototype- did not look like this. Bartholomew had used layered shading, from green to ochres, umbers and purples. The OS chose to use a range based on Burnt Sienna- with no full green- the sea level tone is a pale sea-green in an open letterpress matrix; The reason why they did this was to preserve true green for the forests and these are seen across the maps- as green graphic trees. There are no submarine contours- the sea is generally toned towards the coast. The towns have blocks of buildings in black: like Series 6 maps and not like the hatching of anengraved electrotype map. Engraving, heliography, electrotype, does not block printing for ink retss in the cut or etched lines, not on the highlights. This series 1894-1908 are seen in pictureque areas- they are the prototypes of the later lithographic tourist maps. THE EARLY ELLIS MARTIN COVER DESIGN Ellis Martin was the first professional cover artist employed by the Ordnance Survey. The purpose was to popularise the maps, the effect was startling. The highest ever map sales were achieved in the year 1921 and Ellis Martin's colourful covers were largely responsible. Usually set within a red brown cover and an elaborate festooned leaf border; the Royal Arms crowned the image. The picture by Ellis Martin- showed a man in Tweed Cap, pipe in mouth, and cycling gaiters, sat on sloping grass studying a map from a hill-side with his bicycle propped to his right- In front of him is a generic idealised English landscape. In the distance is a bay and cliffs. In the middle distance a viaduct crosses a river and hills descend to its valley. At the base of the hill woodland frames the image. The artist signs the 1920s covers “EM” at bottom right. One would guess from the mark making that the original was an ink drawing rather than woodblock. Of the Popular Edition of 1919-1921 Nicholas Crane, historian and broadcaster noted" This represents the last view of Britain before it was over-run" (by the motorcar) Timeshift, BBC Sept 2015. Series 5 - 1 inch Generally, these have a blue cover and on them the famous Ellis Martin cover is updated to show a man of the 1930s- the cycle is gone as is the hat, and the Tweed jacket. His hair is in the short sided manner of the 1930s. He still smokes his pipe but now has a short sleeved cardigan, a shirt with sleeves rolled up and a ruck sack on his back- The cyclist has become a hiker. Otherwise the landscape of the image is unchanged, as is the rest of the cover lay out. The artist signs these 1930s covers “Ellis Martin”. Series 5 maps are often of more localised areas than Series 4. They are seldom seen; perhaps their production was quickly compromised and curtailed by the outbreak of war. The implication here is that the golden age of cycle touring is over- This man may be a car driver- his exploration of the countryside is on foot. Series 5 maps were often large- 40 inches wide. 6th SERIES 1 inch 6th Series Northern England and Wales maps were based on the Survey for the 4th edition; but Southern England and Wales, (South of Birmingham), were based on the 5th edition. From the 5th series on the maps were based on Lithographic masters (stone or zinc)- earlier these had been engraved. So, interestingly, Northern England and Wales 6th Series were still based on engraved masters, where as 6th series Southern England and Wales maps were based on masters which were already lithographic. In this 6th series M.O.T. road numbers were marked in red. Parish boundaries were re-established after a period of omission. Briefly a rather thick brown parish line was tried which compromised streams and other marks- this was quickly abandoned- I cite the Snowdon Map of 1918-1947 an an example of its use. On Series 6 maps,the 1 kilometre National Grid was used for the first time. Work on the series began in the 1930s and was interrupted by war when all the effort of the OS went into Overseas mapping an War Office sheets. Then much preparatory work was lost in bombing raids and, having been halted in an unfinished state, many of the plates had not been photographed. Thus the maps which appeared as the “New Popular Edition Series 6" in 1940- 1947 were much less “new” than had been intended as a result of the war damage to the Chessington or Southampton offices and the terrible oversight in not photographing working plates. When they first appeared the prices were: paper flat 2/6d; Paper folded 3/-; Linen backed and folded 5/-; Mounted in sections on linen 10/6d. Scottish maps use the same meridian and projection as England and Wales for the first time. Symbols appeared for National Trust, YHA, Wireless Masts, Pylon Lines, and Telephone Call Boxes. The only 6th Series Tourist map for which the reproduction material was not destroyed by enemy action was that of the Lake District. The other Tourist maps were recreated from scratch after the war. As most 6th Series are published from Southampton, perhaps it was there that the Ordnance Survey lost so much in Bombing raids. 7th SERIES - 1 inch These maps generally appeared soon but not immediately after the war. The 1945-47 maps were Series 6. Series 7 was the first truly Post War survey- the survey revision work had mainly been carried out from 1946 to 1957- and the publications were initially from 1952 to 60- revised up until near the end of the decade. On Series Severn Maps the war-time airfields were marked- usually just with the work “Airfield” an no details. 2 1/2” maps are needed for full runway and taxiway details. For this reason, Series 7 maps are better for war research than the contemporary Series 6 pieces. This series is particularly useful for historians of the RAF Fighter Command and Bomber Command , USAAF, RCAF, RNZAF and RAAF. There are two formats. The earlier ones, from the end of the war have a folded format of 7 ¾ inches by 5 inches, they look noticeable dumpier and thicker. The later format was 8 ¼ inches by 5 inches. The sheet sizes were standard and did not alter- the difference lay in the folding, with the 1950 era maps having the map details or legend strip at the bottom folded-in before the main map was folded. The later format included the whole sheet in the main folds. Another age differentiator is the use of gloss covers. Generally these were later. Thus there are three instantly recognisable types for the 7th series Post War: (a.) Dumpy, matt cover with legend folded in; and (b.) Larger folded size, matt cover, whole sheet folded together. c. Large folded size, gloss cover, whole sheet folded together. By the 7th Series, the railways were nationalised under British Railways and so the old company names disappeared. Closures had begun but Series 7 shows the full network, even if stationed are marked white - that is: closed. One cannot tell if a line so marked was fully closed or open to freight traffic only. It should be noted that the popular notion of “Beeching Cuts” is a simplification; it is quite apparent on Series 6 maps that many lines were already closing in the 1940s. On Series 7 maps, Britain is seen before the motorway network. The Old fighter aerodromes are still shown, but not necessarily the operational ones. The following aesthetic changes from Series 6 can be seen: Woodland is apple green, not lime green. Urban areas are grey blocked, not black blocked. “A” roads are thinner, less vermilion, more crimson and they are numbered in red not black. “B” Roads are thinner, less ochre and more yellow and remain unnumbered. Tidal banks, bays and hydrographic features are marked in blue letters, not black. Contours are thinner and look lighter. Streams and rivers seem a little brighter blue- cobalt rather than tertiary. Orchards and plantations have a lighter and more widely spread symbol of trees in grey. Prices are no longer printed on the map legend. Towards the end of the 1960s the 1 inch series was printed in a plain red gloss cover with black lettering-this late series had a provisional look. 7th Series ½ Inch Green Covered OS maps: An unusual. Perhaps provisional OS series. They used classic OS cartography with a very light toning in three colours and tan contour lines and colour also used for land-use so the series does not have the geological or “orographic” colouring of OS road maps and Bartholomew maps. This seems to be an experimental colouring form and it may not have endured long in published OS series. This series gives a very fine overall perspective of a region. Some detail was lost due to scale- notably orchards and plantations and minor stream names. But the hydrographic structure generally shows up better on this broader scale. There are aspects of the 1/2” series of the 1950s which suggests a much older template. Perhaps the Green ½ inch maps looked back to an earlier manner- perhaps that of the 1930s or even 1920s. Roads maintain a standard form irrespective of map scale- thus they dominate a 1/2 inch map more than a 1 inch map. This is a general characteristic of all small scale maps. Airports are generally absent- either due to war-time redaction which has not been reversed, or an older template which pre-dated they establishment. There are 51 in the series with Shetland being No 1. and Kent No 51. A standard sale price was 3/- for the paper map. Victorian ¼ inch Maps: These were reduced from 2 standard sheets- such as “Kent and East Sussex- sheets 20 & 24”. They were small scale, measuring about 20 inches by 24 inches with usually simple red cloth covers which floated. They had no contours and showed hills with umber shading. They had a 10 minute Mercator grid- and showed roads in burnt orange, woodland in green and the sea without submarine contours in a green blue which toned darker towards the coast. Railway companies were named: they were travelling maps for carriage tours, cycle tours or train journeys. They took Liverpool LWMMT as the datum. Typical dates for the late Victorian-Edwardian series would be: Revised 1887-1894; Railways correct to 1905. They are particularly good for studying the relative growth of towns, woodland cover (usually reduced by today's measure) and overall coastal change. Their form and presentation is a precursor of the Tourist Maps. ¼” Pre War, 3RD Edition Pocket Maps – For Motorcyclists ( & motorists): These had boarded covers-which concertina the map between them. Front cover in black and tertiary blue on fawn with classic image of a motor cyclist studying his map by a road sign, in a peaked tweed cap, goggles, a double breasted tweed jacket and a Pre-1st War machine with a camphor lamp on a bracket square tank. Boards measure 7 ½” by 4 ¼” with G.R. Royal Arms (George V) at bottom front cover. Published from Southampton. Director General of the period cited: Colonel Commandant E M Jack CMG DSO. The map on linen cost 3/-, or Paper 2/-. The Grid is 2”; squares representing 8 miles or 64 square miles; one of the last non-metric grids published by the Ordnance Survey. All the Inter-War railways were named; jointly operated railway lines are marked as such. These are Geographical maps and show contours with graded colour , like a Bartholomew Map. The two publishers were in direct competition but Bartholomew used a ½ inch to the mile scale. Bartholomew covered more local regions- such as “Essex”; and Bartholomew were endorsed by the Cyclist Touring Club whose logo appeared on their map. Ordnance Survey opted for the smaller scale and pitched the map at motor-cyclists. They are similar to the large format blue covered 1/4” maps but have the county names printed in bold black lettering and have grid letters A to M down the sides, and numbers 1-15 across the bottom; a none standard system with no reference to the National Grid. Features marked include: Mineral Railways, Tramways, Battles, Lightships and Lighthouses and Seaplane Stations and aerodromes. These maps are often interestingly annotated by motorcyclists of the period. Numbering was as for the 1/4” 3rd Series large maps with the letter “A” added: 1A to 12A, but missing out 5A. The Index Map suggests that they may not have been issued for Scotland- and also shows that Nos. 1, 3, 10, 11 (Borders, North Yorkshire, Cornwall & Devon, and the South) were not produced in this compact series. Map details state that these were“Heliozincographed” which is “Photo Lithographed” . “Helio” means “using light” (i.e: photographically transferred) and “zincographed” means zinc-plate lithography. (“litho” means stone, the material of the first blocks.) Ordnance Survey and Bartholomew's were rivals for the driver market and used similar formulae. It was a battle which Bartholomew probably won on cost and quantity. It is interesting how much extraneous sea was included on some (example: Isle of Man-North West England). This shows that any one O.S. Version is a by-product of a greater survey and project; the original raison d'etre having been military- not sight seeing by motor cycle. ¼ INCH MAPS: 4TH EDITION These are large and blue-beige covered with the Royal Arms at the top front cover. There were two series, one for Scotland and one for England and Wales. Scotland numbered 1-9 from the Borders to Shetland, and England and Wales numbered 1-12 from the Borders to SE England. Number 1 was shared between the two series and covered the whole border from Solway to Berwick. Oddly, there was no Map 5 in the English Series and so England and Wales were covered by 11 maps. Map 10- Cornwall and Devon is different from the rest in that it did not overlap any other of the series at all. Scottish maps 8 and 9 were published together (Shetland and Orkney). The size folded was a large 12 ½” x 5”. The sheets were about 33” by 27” , with the legend border folded in separately, but they varied. Some, like Shetland, were much smaller. They were printed either portrait or landscape depending on which suited the geography best. They also has a sheet of city maps inside the back cover. This town map sheet was 22” x 12”, black and red on white and printed on recto and verso; it sometimes contained other information, for example: Sheet 4 shows Mersey Tunnel Charge. Typical dates were: Full Revision 1919- printed 1946 (4) so the print date equated with the 6th series 1” but the Master used was much earlier and would have been engraved or electrotyped- not lithographic. These maps have “orographic” colour gradation to show altitude and contour, they also have road numbers; it is apparent that they were going head to head with Bartholomew for the traveller and tourist and came up with a very similar manner of map making, but a very different large format- attractive but seemingly clumsy. In War time, these ¼ maps are sometimes found marked by flyers- particularly, on suspects, by Air Transport and Delivery pilots. These maps have Level Crossings predominantly marked in red because pilots followed railway lines and used level crossings as points of reference. Original 1940s Prices; Paper flat 3/-; Paper folded 5/-; Mounted on linen and folded 8/-; An Outline only edition 3/-. 2 ½ INCHES SERIES The 2 ½ inch small sheets are the best maps for local history, archaeological study and place-name study. They use black, blue and ochre, not full OS colour and will show individual buildings, trees, local names but not all field names. They are either uncovered, blue paper covered or blue glazed card covered. They measure about 18 ½ inches by 19 ½ inches and the black grids on them are 1 ½ inches or 4 cm across. They show and area of about 6 miles by 6 miles (36 square miles), which is 100 km squared. The are number with 2 letters and 2 digits: such as TQ35. Each large area of the country, such as TQ is divided into 80 of these very local 2 ½ inch map blocks. The maps give farm names; they mark, but do not name, fields. 2 ½ Inch 2nd Series (Green) This is a transitional series between the Blue single area format and the Pathfinder double area format. The Cover graphics are as the gloss 1st series 1:25000 maps showing a magnifying glass over a map. 1965 is a standard copyright date. The series anticipates Pathfinder in that the sheet is doubled longitudinally and the symbol legend is at the left. But the manner and printing quality is similar to the 1st Series without the “satin” feel or stark bleached paper of the later maps. The verso is plain, footpaths are bold and green; buildings are grey and individually drawn, ancient sites are well marked, field boundaries are black: This is more rarely seen series- very pleasant maps on good paper. The standard price was 8 shillings and 6d a sheet. Pathfinder 2 ½ inch Maps These were introduced circa 1980 and had a different format- They were larger, covering two of the old 2 ½” maps: Thus, for example, the Oxford map is marked SP40/50 and covered the old maps SP40 and SP50. Early Pathfinders had no other letter or number codes, but soon a new numbering system accompanied the Old letter and number grid: Example: “MONTGOMERY 909 : SO29/30.” One change is the return of Imperial scales, For a time from roughly 1960 onwards maps were described only as 1:25000, now “2 ½ inch to the Mile” makes a re appearance – perhaps by demand, because this means something; where as 1:25000 is rather abstract. The versi were now plain, which they had not been in the Provisional 1:25000 series, and the covers became Green and Rose Pink with Black and White lettering. Their printing differed from earlier 2 1/2” as well: Wooded areas became block green with tree symbols in black- previously they had been white with tree symbols in a grey. Symbols for trees differentiated between Coniferous, Broad leaf, Coppice and Orchard- Orchards alone retained the white background. The fonts changed too: Pathfinder lettering was Roman Capital Sans Serif and light. Older maps were Italic Capital and bold. Field boundaries where lined in a bold manner; previously they had been light grey. The orange contours lines were toned down and footpaths/ bridleways marked in a bolder green. Watercourses were a lighter blue and perhaps simplified with minor ponds being unmarked. The Fold format also changed from 24cm x 12cm to 24 cm x 12.5cm: seemingly minor but giving the folded map a markedly stockier look. The borders were changed: previously they had been white, now they were the same pale green as the woodland with an outer border in white. The paper turned from cream to white. Underlying all these subtle changes was a shift in emphasis- old 2 ½ inch maps were documents of record with emphases on roads, altitude and water sources; perhaps land ownership and use was uppermost in the cartographer's mind. The Pathfinder's emphasis was on walking access- this had an advantage in the mapping of railways . Previously closed or closing railways used to undergo a gradual disappearance ending up with vague cutting symbols in the landscape. - but on these walking maps, they became boldly displayed in white with black lined edges; they had, with social change, become green-ways and important aspects of the countryside. Local farm names were retained: but there appears to have been a change in the marking of tumuli and barrows which were now named but not marked with that circle of short dashes which had made then so prominent on the older series. Overall the effect is of a higher key map with less geological emphasis and more right of way or leisure emphasis. The change from Capital Bold Italic to Light Roman Sans Serif, seemingly trivial, made a very big aesthetic difference. 2 ½ inch and its 1:25000 equivalent Are these the same? Technically no. The maths works out as follows: 1 mile = 1760 yards, which is 5880 feet or 63360 inches. Divided by 2.5 = 1: 25,344. Which is the actual scale use on the map: 1:25,000, or 1:25,344? The 1:25,344 is the correct figure, the reference to miles is a convenient approximate for users. The 2 1/2 inch series was undertaken initially between 1945 and 1962- it was an entirely Post War exercise. Geological Survey and Ordnance Survey The relationship between the two Surveys was close. The BASE MAPS of the Geological Survey of Great Britain were always Ordnance maps, be they national or local. The definitive Great Britain Survey by the GSGB of 1948 , which was produced in 2 sheets (North and South), was 10 miles to the inch and used a grey OS base map. The Ordnance Survey retained primary copyright on these maps, not the GSGB. The Ordnance Survey published a large scale pair of sheets showing the Ancient Sites of Britain to accompany the Geological Survey- same format, also North and South, numbered 1 & 2, and using a grey-blue map base with orographic colour in ochre shades. These maps were very professionally produced with robust linen backs and were roughly 40 inches by 32 inches- as were the two sheet Geological Survey maps. The image on the covers of the two Great Britain Geological Survey maps of 1948 was very much in the manner of Ellis Martin but was signed “RTR” at bottom right: It showed a similar idealised English landscape with two geologists at work with hammer and map. A characteristic of the accompanying 1951 Ancient Britain sheets was their conservatism- perhaps including only sites verified and surveyed by themselves- Piltdown was one unfortunate inclusion. War Maps: The Director of the Ordnance Survey in the 1st World War was Colonel Close. This war brought in the use of aerial mapping. Capt. Harold Winterbottom was in charge of photo-observation from the air in this war. 33 million maps and plans were produced by the Ordnance Survey for the British military during the Great War. The Survey lost 67 of its personnel in the war. These maps were printed by the Geographical Section of the General Staff and published by the War Office- They have a different grid system to civilian maps – generally using purple lines and a reference system of vertical and horizontal numbers- East is read first, then North. The western edge of the square giving the East Co-ordinate and the south edge of the square gives the North Co-ordinate. Interestingly the Army used a Proto-National Grid in kms from a datum off S.W.Cornwall since the 1920s. The RAF did not convert to metric- using nautical miles. Also the RAF often did not receive its maps via the G.S.G.S. W.O. (General Staff, Geographical Service, War Office) but often directly from the Ordnance Survey. The Air Ministry used some standard OS maps such as the 3 sheet 10 mile to the inch series and the ¼ inch series. Larger scale civilian maps were not suitable for flying but some Series 6 1” maps bear prominent red crosses on level crossings- suggesting that they had an auxillary use for flyers- perhaps for the ATA- many of whose flyers were women. Interestingly, Army military bearings conform neither to True North nor to Grid North. On many of these maps, MILITARY details are often printed under the map- on some, letters subdivide the chart. Some look cut down but were issued without margins with coordinates printed across the middle of the map. The General scale for the local Military maps of the 2nd War is 1 mile to the inch. They are in full OS colour, but due to the many scratch printers used, the colouring is non-standard and the paper quality is War Standard. Smaller scale general maps are often found with air navigators' hand written marks- They must have been used by Air Transport Corps. Maps known to have been from Cranwell show that the RAF used 1” extracts for general cartographic training and examination. On GSGS WO maps, OS survey details are often given- original surveys can be as early as 1865-78 and first publication often circa 1876-82- then constantly revised until these War Time printings by the War Office Geographical Service. One tends to find, when dated, that the GSGS OS maps with purple grid are 1930s surveys printed in War Revision of 1940 and the GSGS Blue Grid are generally 1940-42 prints of the 1940 War Revision. There is considerable difference in colour on OS War maps. Generally the older and linen backed ones tend to use deeper lithographic colour and the paper and later maps tend towards muted lithographic colour. Tidal flats are shown in ochre on the former and often grey stippled on the latter. The blues of the fresh water and tidal water show the greatest difference between the series: quite intense and ultramarine on some (earlier)- more tertiary on others (later). Military Maps have no covers, but are folded sheets, linen backed or paper and - often with a pencil reference on the verso. Often those that were used in the field had the edges folded back. A few were varnished- seemingly with cellulose- this was done to paper maps without linen backing. The standard size of the War Chart without margins is roughly 27 inches by 19 inches. In 1938 it was noticed that the OS survey were not fit for military operations and an emergency survey to update buildings and roads was carried out. This is particulrly noticeable on 6” and 25” maps and the added buildings are lined but not shaded to show that hi survey is not carried out to normal OS stndards. ADMIRALTY printings of the 1 inch OS -Seventh Series: These are uncommon, use a cover indistinguishable from Civilian Ordnance Survey, but their linen backing is more robust and the printing details give the civilian publication date, normal reprint dates and then the words : “PRINTED BY THE HYDROGRAPHER OF THE NAVY” with a date. It might be assumed that these were coastal charts used for inshore water duties, maybe boat rescue, Air-Sea Rescue, fisheries and Coastguards. But one was found for Appleby Westmorland: it had no sea at all and no lakes of note- so their use is something of a mystery. Generally, cooperation between Admiralty Charts and Ordnance Survey was long-standing and sometimes cited on the map sheet: see notes of Jersey Maps. The main grid is National Grid and is set from Point 00,south west of Lands End. But there are also a grid in degrees north and east-west of Greenwich marked with a light cross- the grid has 5' squares (five minutes: a minute being a 60th of a degree). This "true longitude-latitude grid" is also marked on land but is difficult to see- it becomes a major feature of the hydrography. On land this cross might be confused with a symbol for a site of antiquity or a church without a spire: but it is longer and lighter than those. RAF MAPS: THESE USUALLY USED THE ¼ INCH TO THE MILE SCALE: They tend to cite the Ordnance Survey but not the General Staff geographical Service. War Office. They often use purple in an orographic manner (graded to express altitude). This must be something to do with colours in night vision and reduced light. They cite some interesting features which were important for aeronautical navigation such as Golf courses and white horses. They show sea lights and aerial lights, mark the air stations and “landing grounds” and have symbols for sea plane stations, airship hangars and airship mooring posts. They also cite, in red bombing ranges, shelling ranges, and artillery. They unlike GSGS maps are always marked “Secret” or “Not for Publication”, in red and have lists of elaborate sign codes for light beacons. These are not common. ORDNANCE SURVEY FOR SCOTLAND. In some series this is treated as a different survey with different lettering and numbering systems. On War Maps this is the case (1” small sheet, blue, purple grid) and when a map crosses the Border- for example the sheet “ Solway-Gretna-Longtown”- it has two numbers, one for the Scottish Survey and one for the English and Welsh Survey. However, how much the two Surveys were ever independent is a debatable point and will be noticed that the Ordnance Survey of Scotland Maps are published by the Director General from either Chessington Surrey or Southampton, Hampshire. The covers on Vintage OS maps were different; the English and Welsh Surveys showed the Royal Arms not the English Arms, the Scottish Survey showed the Lion Rampant, not the Quartered Arms of the Monarch in Scotland, which would have been the Lion Rampant 1st and 3rd, Three Lions 2nd and Harp 4th with the supporters of the Scottish Arms; the implication might be that the Ordnance Survey of England and Wales was under Royal Patronage, where as that of Scotland was not. From Series 7 onwards Scottish OS maps used the same hinged cover system as English OS maps- prior to that Series Scottish maps had a concertina cover system. Scottish series 7 maps still retain the Lion Rampant arms. ORDNANCE SURVEY OF IRELAND: This was headquartered at Dublin and had some differences with the England and Wales Survey. They prefered the floating cover system of the Scottish Survey. They tended to default to Anglo Irish as a language rather than Irish and thus one gets the impression that many place names are transcribed and the gaelic is not at all pure. The datum was 21 feet below a mark on the Poolbeg lighthouse in Dublin Bay- so this was a true Irish Survey. They either ignore fathoms and bathymetric data altogether or use fathoms for both coastal waters and inland loughs- this the British Surveys did not do. They produced very fine electrotypes with letterpress at the turn of the century- often 1” maps were quite local and about 30 inches by 14 inches. The hydrography was particularly good using linear shading pulled from a blue intaglio plate. After the Revolution the Southern Irish Ordnance Survey continued for many years to sell (perhaps produce) Pre Revolution sheets still dated and ascribed to the OSI and printed at Southampton, and still in electrotype. These even appeared in the covers of the Learscailioct Eireann to which they suffixed the words in brackets (Ordnance Survey) One is not a translation of the other- the Irish translates better as “Map Survey of Ireland”. But in their address they continued to use the old United Kingdom term “Oifig na Suirveireacta Ordonais”. They were based at Pairc an Fionn-Uisce (Phoenix Park- Fionn Water) Baile atha Cliat (Dublin). The standard of the UK Ordnance maps was maintained until the 1940s but Post War the lithography was not good. I think the country relied much more on the Bartholomew's Irish Sheets- which were very good- than did the residual UK. The Northern Irish Survey broke off from the Learscailioct Eireann and continued with a more UK style Ordnance map series- but their folded format for their one inch maps was much bigger than those of England, Wales and Scotland. JERSEY The 1914 Jersey Survey produced a non-standard 2 inch to the mile map which used contours and a tan shading to display the geology of the island. It referred back to 1900-01. The covers were pictorial showing a scene from the Island. Prehistoric sites and old forts were shown and the Jersey Railway was an important feature of the eastern side of the island. The map was corrected in later years with reference to the Admiralty charts and this, plus the manner of printing and presentations- suggests that it was always envisaged as an aid to sailors and as a map for visitors. The rocks of the Jersey coast and the marine lights were recorded in a manner reminiscent of the detail of a marine chart. The map was folded and had hinged covers, and a smaller format when closed. SCILLY ISLANDS A rare map, the example described is 1933- Scale 2 ½ inches to the mile, geologically coloured-with ochre and light shading to represent the hills, orange contour lines. Map 25 ½ “ x 22 inches- all coloured roads are ochre- either solid or dashed- minor tracks uncoloured. This is called a Special District relief Map- Woodland is green. The Admiralty is cited for the submarine contours. The grid is 1-4 of longitude from west to east and A to C of latitude from north to south. Grid squares are 5 ¾ inches or perhaps 3 miles in each direction. Drawn on a Transverse Mercator projection- the boundaries marked at sea are parish borders. Published from Southampton in hinged fawn card covers with a red block printed Royal Arms called “Fifth Relief Edition Isles of Scilly” under the auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. A later Scilly Isles Survey was in 1/4” scale and it is interesting how much difference there was between the names on this map and those of the earlier one. SPECIALS Special maps are particularly sought after: perhaps the most famous being the Eclipse Maps- such as that of 27th June 1927, with its One day even usage for the Total Eclipse which ran across England and Wales, for which a special illustrated cover was drawn: Printers code: 5000/27. THE NATIONAL GRID. The START POINT is called the “datum” and is a little to the south west of Lands End and then all the points in England and Wales (later Scotland) are pin pointed in reference to east and north of this point. The datum is fixed so that the Scilly Isles can be included on the survey; essentially the Scilly Isles define the position of the datum. The first pre metric National Grid used 5000 yard squares ( about 2 ¾ miles) The datum was 00 off S. W. Cornwall. Thus Fittleworth was expressed as 1,110,000 yards east. This system was used to the end of Series 5 maps, that it up until the 2nd World War. It seems that military (Army) usage in the 1920s prompted the OS to convert to metric measurements. This same point "00" later formed the default position for a grid of 10 km squares, subdivided into a 1km grid, drawn parallel to a North South line through Point 0. The eastings are then given followed by the northings to pin point any place. A 4 letter reference gives you a point within 100metres. a 6 letter reference give a point within a metre. On a very local map you can scrap the 100s of kilometre number- and give just 3 numbers 356- 532 for example : square 35.6 east and square 53.2 north. Of course you cannot portray a globe accurately in this way and so the distortions by the time you are in say Berwick, Cromer or Shetland are quite considerable. This may have been the logic behind Scotland having its own perspective point and grid which seems to have ceased in series 6. It seems logical that eastings would distort more than northings; a northern line from Start Point 0 is correct irrespective of its length- though “true north” moves on a planet which wobbles in its yearly orbit. Longitude line east of Point 0 should converge. The National Grid does not show Mercator grid elongation. The National Grid perhaps shows that cartography is an art of convenience,and subjectivity as much as a science. When this system was introduced, it was explained in full on the inside of the front cover- Series 6 was contemporary to its introduction, and all Series 6 maps carry this explanation. The term “datum” is also applied to the point from which altitude is defined. This was at LWMMT Liverpool until 1915, then at LWMMT Newlyn Tidal Observatory in Cornwall- thus a pre and post 1915 map will have differences in measured heights of fells and mountains(the degree to which Liverpool and Newlyn do not concur). The Irish Ordnance Survey used LWMMT on the Dublin Bay Lighthouse. In hydrography, the depth of inland waters (lochs and lakes) are measured in feet and coastal waters in fathoms. The Irish Survey used fathoms for both inland waters and coastal waters. Hydrographic depth is rarely given for reservoirs, small lakes and tarns, or altered lakes such as Thirlmere and Haweswater. This may. In part, be because the Bathymetric Survey of circa 1870-1903 was not repeated. Also reservoirs have no standard depth. Smaller meres and tarns tend to have a figure which describes the altitude of the surface of the water above the LWMMT datum. Tourist Maps: These are perhaps the most attractive of the OS series combining “orographic” colour and contour- the early ones were intaglio and the series was substantially lost in the 2nd World War due to Bombing Damage. The Lake District was the only Master which survived the destruction. The Post War Tourists' lithographic maps were 1” and the orographic colour is quite different from that of Bartholomew- more high key, brighter. The mapping is “hybrid”, having relief colour, contour and shading- they tended to have the large format of 41” by 33 inches and the covers were particularly attractive in the early 19th century with period graphics evoking the age. The first Post War versions were interesting- revision 1950-51, publication 1958- amended to 1963. irrational geological shading froim three suns casing shadows on the south south east and south west side of fells. They omitted YHA (perhaps as part of their ongoing feud with Bartholomew's who always showed them)- and they only produced 7: 4 in England and 3 in Scotland with perhaps the Wye and Lower Severn being the least usual and unexpected choice. These 7 are useful because they catch the old railways prior to closure. Lake District is particularly interesting here as it is known to be the only post-bombing survivor. Also Bathymetric readings are interesting: omitting all the “improved” or “artificial” lakes: Haweswater, Thirlmere- suggesting this Bathymetric survey was contemporary to that of the Scottish Lochs: 1897-1903 and had not been re-surveyed since. The covers of the 1960s were a little bland and perhaps did not do justice to the excellent maps within which aspired to the condition of art as well as documents of information. The tourist series of the 1960s covered these titles: BEN NEVIS AND GLEN COE, CAINGORMS, DARTMOOR, EXMOOR, GREATER LONDON, LAKE DISTRICT, LOCH LOMOND AND THE TROSSACHS, NEW FOREST, NORTH YORK MOORS, PEAK DISTRICT, SNOWDONIA. The multi plate coloured intaglio printing of the Early 20th century Tourist series represents perhaps the most interesting an attractive of all Ordnance Survey maps. Very Rare maps: there are several but two are the semi mythical Engraved maps with railways before electrotyping and the 1927 Eclipse Map with pictorial cover- A map for a one day event. Trig-Point: Spot Heights. The Ordnance Survey built these between 1935 and 1962. In flat land where heigh points were not to be had for survey work the Survey built temporary high points with "Bilby Towers". FOLDING OS MAPS: The standard way is: fold the map horizontally, then concertina the map laterally, Fold in half. (If the lower information border is separately folded, that is done first.) Scottish OS maps used a floating cover system, as did Bartholomew of Edinburgh. Often the front and back boards of a concertina-folded map were not on the same horizontal line of folds. The OS Motorcycle Maps have floating covers as well. The advantage of the Scottish system was that one did not get hinge wear on the cover. The disadvantage of the Scottish system was that there is no spine with map details readable from a library shelf. Scottish OS maps used hinged covers from Series 7 onward. - Condition: RARER PAPER MAP IN COVERS WITH UNUSUAL "D" PRINT CODE WHICH MIGHT IN 1945 BE MOD. MAP WITH REDACTIONS OF PORTS AND AIRFIELDS BUT TANGMERE IS PARTLY SHOWN. PORTSMOUTH AT WAR- REDACTIONS AND BOMB DAMAGE PROBABLY SHOWN WHICH MIGHT BE UNIQUE IN THIS SERIES. CHICHESTER BEFORE DISCOVERIES AT FISHBOURNE- COASTAL GEOGRAPHY AND HYDROGRAPHY: OLD RAILWAYS OF WEST SUSSEX AND HAMPSHIRE. MAP PROBABLY SUPPLIED AND USED UNDER WAR TIME RESTRICTIONS AND WAR SUBSTITUTE REGULATIONS, County: Sussex, Cartographer/Publisher: Ordnance Survey of England and Wales, Printing Technique: Lithography, Original/Reproduction: Vintage Original, Format: sheet paper, plain verso 1", Litho, covers, Type: WAR DECADE OS MAP 1930-1945- COVERS 1" SCALE, Year: 1930-45, Date Range: 1930-1945, City: portsmouth, chichester arundel bognor, Country/Region: England, State: South Coast of England (Channel Coast), Era: war period-perhaps war use, WAR TIME PORTSMOUTH: COASTAL HARBOURS OF SUSSEX AND HAMPSHIRE, OLD RAILWAYS OF WEST SUSSEX & SOUTHCOAST: WAR DECADE DETAIL FOR AN HISTORIAN OF HANTS-SUSSEX

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